Biological instrumentation and engineering is the application of knowledge and technology to solve problems related to living biological systems. It includes the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease in humans. As the medical field continues to evolve, the field of biomedical engineering is an expanding field. We use the term “bio” to denote anything related to life. When the fundamentals of physics and chemistry are applied to living organisms, we call them biophysics and biochemistry. So when the discipline of engineering and medicine interact, it is called biomedical engineering.
This includes the measurement of biological signals such as ECG, EMG, or any electrical signal produced in the human body. Biomedical instrumentation helps doctors diagnose problems and provide treatment. To measure biological signals and design a medical device, electronics concepts and measurement techniques are needed.
Components of Biomedical Instrumentation System:
Any medical instrument consists of the following functional basic parts:
A measurement is a physical quantity, and a system of instruments measures it. The human body acts as a measurement source, and it generates bio signals. Example: blood pressure at body surface or heart.
2. Sensor / Transducer:
A transducer converts one form of energy into another form, usually electrical energy. For example, a piezoelectric signal that converts mechanical vibration into an electrical signal.A transducer produces a measurable output. A sensor is used to sense the signal from the source. It is used to be interface the signal with the human.
3. Signal Conditioner:
The Signal conditioning circuits are used to be convert the output from the transducer into an electrical value. The instrument system sends this quantity to a display or recording system. Generally, signal conditioning processes include amplification, filtering, digital-to-analog and digital-to-analog conversions. Signal conditioning improves the sensitivity of the equipment.
It is used to provide a visual representation of a measured parameter or quantity. Example: chart recorder, cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO). Sometimes alarms are used to listen to audio signals. Example: Signals generated in a Doppler ultrasound scanner used for fetal monitoring.
5. Data Storage and Data Transmission:
Data storage is used to store data and can use it for future reference. Nowadays electronic health records are used in hospitals. Data transmission is used in telemeter systems, where data can be transferred remotely from one location to another.