Materials Used for Transmission Line Conductor 2023:

An electrical conveyor is a material that permits electric charges to travel through it effectively when exposed to a possible contrast. Electrical conveyors are fundamental for some applications, for example, wiring, transmission lines, electrical machines, warming components, electrostatic safeguarding, and that’s only the tip of the iceberg. In this article, we will investigate the properties of electrical transmitters, their sorts, models, and applications.

ACSR guide is especially popular for high voltage over transmission lines. The decision of suitable material for transmission line depends on it.

  1. Required electrical properties
  2. Required mechanical strength
  3. Nearby circumstances
  4. Cost of material

Required Properties in Materials Utilized for Guide in Transmission Line:

  1. High conductivity.
  2. High elasticity.
  3. Light weight
  4. High protection from consumption in whether conditions.
  5. High warm steadiness.
  6. Low coefficient of warm development.
  7. Minimal expense.

Materials Use for Transmission Lines:

Materials use for transmission lines are recorded underneath:

  1. Copper.
  2. Aluminum.
  3. Cadmium – Copper alloys.
  4. Phosphor bronze.
  5. Galvanized steel.
  6. Steel core copper.
  7. Steel core aluminum.

Copper (Cu):

A high conductivity material, widely used as a transmitter for electrical machines or hardware, is copper. Ductility, weldability and patch ability are the most important properties of copper. Copper has great conductivity in the unalloyed structure. However, the conductivity of standard grade copper is decreasing which leads to defects.

Properties of Copper:

  1. Resistivity: 1.68 µΩ -cm.
  2. Temperature coefficient of opposition at 20oC: 0.00386/oC.
  3. Liquefying point: 1085oC.
  4. Explicit gravity: 8.96gm /cm3.

Use of Copper:

Copper is the most important and very suitable material for transmission line conductors as it has high conductivity and high tensile strength. Most of all it has good flexibility. The only limitation is its price.

Aluminum (Al):

Aluminum is an element that is silvery white, light weight, soft, non-magnetic and ductile metal. Aluminum is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon) and the most abundant metal found in the Earth’s crust. The primary ore of aluminum is bauxite. Aluminum has low density, high ductility, good corrosion resistance and good conductivity, making it suitable for use as an electrical conductor for the transmission and distribution of electricity.

Properties of Aluminum:

  1. Resistivity: 2.65 µΩ -cm.
  2. Temperature coefficient of resistance at 20oC: 0.00429 /oC.
  3. Melting point: 660oC.
  4. Specific gravity: 2.70 gm /cm3.

Use of Aluminum:

Aluminum is the most normally involved material in transmission line. Aluminum has impressive conductivity. More than that it is light in weight. The main limit is its low rigidity. To defeat this impediment a steel center is utilized to build the rigidity of aluminum guides, for example, in ACSR (Aluminum Guide Steel Supported) guides. ACSR guide is extremely famous for high voltage above transmission lines.

Cadmium Copper Alloy:

Aluminum is the most normally involved material in transmission line. Aluminum has impressive conductivity. More than that it is light in weight. The main limit is its low rigidity. To defeat this impediment a steel center is utilized to build the rigidity of aluminum guides, for example, in ACSR (Aluminum Guide Steel Supported) guides. ACSR guide is extremely famous for high voltage above transmission lines.

Use of Cadmium – Copper alloy:

  1. For making guides for High rigidity transmission line.
  2. For making streetcar wire.
  3. Warming cushions.
  4. Electrical cover components.

Phosphor Bronze:

Phosphor bronze is a copper alloy containing 3.5 to 10% tin and 1% phosphorus. Sometimes, it is also called “Phos-Bronze”. Phosphorus is added as a deoxidizing agent during smelting. Phosphor bronze has good strength, toughness, low friction and fine grain. The addition of phosphorus increases the fluidity of the melt which in turn improves the castability of the alloy and refines the grain boundaries which improves the mechanical properties of the alloy.

Use of Phosphor Bronze:

To make conductors for transmission lines passing through the marine environment.
For spring and bolt manufacture where high resistance to fatigue is required.
Marine propellers where high corrosion resistance is required in marine environments.
To make electrical connections.
In cryogenics, where fair electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity allow electrical connections to be made to the device at very low temperatures without excessive heat input.

Galvanized Steel:

Pure iron and steel rust or corrode in the open. Sheet and wire made of these metals are coated with zinc to prevent corrosion. Hot dip galvanization is used for zinc coating. In this process iron or steel is dipped in molten zinc at a temperature around 449oC. When exposed to the atmosphere, zinc reacts with oxygen (O2) to form zinc oxide (Zno), which further reacts with carbon dioxide to form zinc carbonate (ZnCo3). This zinc carbonate is usually a dull gray and fairly strong material, protecting the underlying iron or steel from corrosion in exposed conditions.

Use of Galvanized Steel:

  1. Galvanized steel wire is used to make conductors used in
  2. transmission lines where corrosion resistance is required.
    Galvanized steel sheets and pipes are used to make transmission poles.

Steel Core Copper:

It is sometimes called copper clad steel conductor. To increase the strength of the wire for high tensile strength, steel is used as the core of the conductor and copper is used to increase the conductivity of the conductor. Here, copper not only provides conductivity but also acts as a protective layer to prevent corrosion of the steel from atmospheric weather conditions.

Use of Steel Core Copper:

  1. Steel core copper wire is used for earthing of electrical installations.
  2. As the inner conductor of coaxial cable.
  3. Drop telephone cables.

Steel Core Aluminum:

Aluminum is light in weight and has great conductivity. In any case, its elasticity is extremely low. To make it reasonable for use as a guide for a transmission line, we want to build its rigidity. To build the elasticity, steel is utilized as the center of the guide. A genuine illustration of steel center aluminum is ACSR (Aluminum Guide Steel Supported) guide. ACSR guide is generally utilized in transmission line. As it has high elasticity, great conductivity and efficient.

Use of Steel Core Aluminum:

  1. Aluminum Steel Core Wire (ACSR) is used as conductor for transmission line.
  2. As the inner conductor of coaxial cable.

 

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