# The Wave Particle Duality Principle (2024):

With the evolution of the photoelectric effect, Crompton’s effect and Bohr’s model of the atom, the idea of light or
In general, existence consisting of rays, fragments or discrete quanta of reality was gaining widespread popularity.
However, Huygen’s more traditional principle and the results of Young’s double-slit experiments made it clear that light was a wave and not a stream of particles.
The impressive interference pattern noticed by passing light through the double slit was definitely a result of the wave nature of the light. This then led to the controversy over the nature of light. In 1704, Newton also proposed the particle nature of light through his corpuscular theory.

Neither theory was sufficient to explain all phenomena with light equally. Thus, scientists began to determine that light is both wave and particle in nature. In 1924, Louis de Broglie, a French physicist, proposed a theory. He said that all the particles in this universe are also connected with wave nature, that is, everything in this world, whether it is a small photon or a human, a mountain elephant, everything has a relationship with itself, it is a different thing that the signal nature Is. Noticeable or not? He assigned a wavelength to each case with mass m and impulse p.

You know about it Where, (h) is (Planck( constant and p = mv, v is velocity of the body

Thus, due to the large mass of an elephant, it has a very significant momentum and therefore a very small wavelength, which we are unable to observe, but smaller particles such as electrons would have much smaller masses. is and therefore has a very prominent wavelength or wave nature. This theory of de Broglie also helps us to explain the discrete existence of orbitals in Bohr’s model of the atom. An electron will be in an orbit if its length is a necessary multiple of its natural wavelength, if it is unable to complete its wavelength, that orbit will
Further development of electron scattering from crystals by Davison and Germer and the growth of a similar interference pattern after bombarding a double slit with electrons strengthened de Broglie’s matter-wave theory or wave-particle dual theory. .

The Compton Effect:

Further developments by Davison and Germer of electron scattering from crystals and similar interference patterns obtained after bombarding a double slit with electrons strengthened de Broglie’s matter-wave theory or wave-particle duality theory.
Compton effect
In the photoelectric effect, light strikes a metal in the form of tiny beams called photons. The energy of a photon contributes to the work energy of an electron as well as providing kinetic energy to the emitted electron. These photons are particle like wave behavior of light. Sir Albert Einstein went on to say that the collective effect of light is a large number of energy packets called photons where each photon has HF energy. As we know that to where (h) is (Planck’s constant) is ( and f is the frequency of light. This is the particle like wave behavior of light. The behavior of light waves or other electromagnetic waves such as particles can be explained by the Compton effect.

In this experiment, an X-ray beam of frequency fo and wavelength λo was directed at an electron. After the electron is hit by the incident X-ray it is found that both the electron and the incident X-ray are scattered at two different angles with respect to the axis of the incident X-ray. This collision obeys the same energy conservation principle as Newtonian particle collisions.

In this experiment, an X-ray beam of frequency fo and wavelength λo was directed at an electron. After the electron is hit by the incident X-ray it is found that both the electron and the incident X-ray are scattered at two to be different angles with respect to the axis of the incident X-ray. This collision Hase to be obeys the same energy conservation principle as Newtonian particle collisions.

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